 Prep them well for VCE # Middle School Mathematics

## Year 5

Students solve problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies. They check the reasonableness of answers using estimation and rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They connect three dimensional objects with their two dimensional representations, describing transformations of two dimensional shapes and identifying line and rotational symmetry. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on number lines. They add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. Students continue patterns by adding and subtracting fractions and decimals. They find unknown quantities in number sentences. Students use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate the perimeter and area of rectangles. They also estimate, measure, compare and construct angles. Students use appropriate units of measurement for time and convert between 12 and 24 hour time. They list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities between 0 and 1. Students pose questions to gather data and construct appropriate data displays as well as comparing and interpreting different data sets.

## Year 6

Students extend their understanding of whole numbers, fractions, decimals and percentages. They solve problems using mental and written methods for whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They investigate the order of operations using number sentences. Students work individually and in groups on a range of problem solving tasks, open ended investigations and real life mathematical situations. In the topic of Space, students explore concepts including co-ordinates, scale, direction and mapping. They explore the properties of lines and angles, and extend their understanding of capacity and volume. Students describe the probability of a range of events using correct mathematical terminology. They collate data from surveys and create and interpret a variety of graphs.

## Year 7

Students revise the four operations and solve problems involving whole numbers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation, and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. Students solve problems involving percentages and all four operations with fractions and decimals. Students use fractions, decimals and percentages, and their equivalences. They compare the currency conversions to make financial decisions. Students investigate transformations, including translation, symmetry, reflection and rotation on a Cartesian plane. They connect the laws and properties for numbers to algebra. Students solve simple linear equations and evaluate algebraic expressions after numerical substitution. They identify issues involving the collection of continuous data. They calculate the mean, mode, median and range for data sets and describe their relationships in data displays, constructing stem and leaf plots and dot plots. Students use formulas for the area and perimeter of rectangles and calculate the volume of rectangular prisms. They classify triangles and quadrilaterals. They name the types of angles formed by a transversal crossing a parallel line. Students determine the sample size for experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities to these outcomes.

## Year 8

Students solve problems involving rates, ratios and percentages. They recognise index laws and apply them to integers. Students describe rational and irrational numbers. They use mental and written strategies to carry out the four operations with integers. Students solve problems involving profit and loss. They make sense of time duration in real applications. They identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. Students explain issues related to the collection of data and the effect of outliers on means and medians in that data. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions, making connections between expanding and factorising of these expressions. They solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on a Cartesian plane. Students convert between units of measurement for area and volume. They perform calculations to determine perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles and calculate the areas and circumferences of circles. They solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. Students determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities. Students model authentic situations with two way tables and Venn diagrams. They select appropriate language to describe events and experiments.